Friday, May 22, 2020

A New Antibiotic Kills Pathogens - 875 Words

Antibiotics are secondary metabolites expressed by a microorganism against other microorganisms as a means to compete for limited resources and are thought to have originated from soil-dwelling microbes (D’costa). Many of our current antibiotic therapies were derived directly from soil-dwelling microorganisms, including but not limited to Bacillus, Streptomyces, and Penicillium (cite). Therefore, it is logical that the search for novel antibiotic therapies should continue with soil microbes. Unfortunately, isolation of potential antibiotic drugs from soil microorganisms remains a challenge. Over 99% of microbial life is incapable of being cultured via traditional methods (Lewis). This means that new culturing approaches are required to isolate potential antibiotic producers. Fortunately, progress has recently been made in this endeavor. The methods that follow have been derived from a paper published in Nature in January 2015, titled â€Å"A new antibiotic kills pathogens wit hout detectable resistance.† Utilizing a new means of culturing soil microbes, researchers discovered a previously uncharacterized antibiotic, teixobactin, derived from a ÃŽ ²-proteobacteria called Eleftheria terrae (Ling). The techniques utilized in this paper have shown that there are untapped resources for antimicrobial therapies yet to be discovered. Soil samples can be taken from various geographic locations and depths. Utilizing a culturing device called an iChip, researchers can better replicate theShow MoreRelatedThe Human Immune System Essay629 Words   |  3 Pagesbody to fight diseases, as well as pathogens, the disease-causing factors. It is mainly composed of the tonsils and adenoids, the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, the spleen, appendix, and bone marrow. The main purpose of the immune system is to assist the body in its struggle to maintain optimal health. The immune system depends on the body’s structures to help it function. For instance, the skin acts as the â€Å"body’s first line of defense.† If a pathogen finds a breach in the skin barrierRead MoreEssay on Practical Applications of Evolutionary Biology1484 Words   |  6 Pagesshape the theory of evolution which holds as much weight as the theory of relativity per se. Evolutionary biology is the science devoted to understanding how populations change through time in response to modifications of their environment and how new species come into being by studying adaptation and diversity (Freeman and Herron 2004). Evolutionary biology has proved that all organisms have evolved from a common ancestor over the last 3.5 billion years. There is a common misconception that evolutionRead MoreAntibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay1109 Words   |  5 PagesAntibiotic Resistant Bacteria â€Å"Antibiotics is the name given to the group of chemicals, particularly in medicine, that stop or inhibit the growth of, microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and parasites, or that kill the microorganism. They are, however, completely ineffective against viruses. There are two kinds of antibiotics, namely; bactericides, which interfere with the cell wall or contents of the bacteria, thereby killing it, and bacteriostatics, which prevent the bacteria from reproducingRead MoreNew Line Of Therapies Against Pathogenic Bacteria1487 Words   |  6 PagesIn this age of antibiotic resistance, there is an emergence for new line of therapies against pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics are semi-synthetic or synthetic compounds that target specific bacterial molecules and cause suppression or killing of the pathogen. The bacteria in-turn has developed resistance against many of the available antibiotics causing a more severe and often fatal infections. There exist viruses that eat up/lyse the bacteria called as bacteriophages (baterio: bacteria and phage:Read MoreAntibiotic Resistant Catastrophe864 Words   |  4 Pages Since the 1940’s antibiotics have greatly decreased death and illness due to infectious diseases. These drugs have had a significant impact on patient’s health when used correctly and appropriately. (CDC, 2013) However sometimes they are overused. When these antibiotics are overused, or used for diseases in which they are not necessary the infectious organism could become antibiotic resistant. Antibiotic resistance is defined as, the effect of microbes transforming in ways thatRead MoreBiological Structures And Processes Within An Organism That Provides A Defence Against Disease1662 Words   |  7 Pagesare called pathogens. Our body is a rich source of water and nutrients that these pathogens need to survive, it is a perfect environment for them to live and develop. Nevertheless, human’s body has its own way to protect itself from these invaders, therefore most of the time we remain healthy. Immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that provides a defence against disease. There are three major lines of our defence against pathogens. The firstRead MoreCan We Use Plant Extraction And Control Or Reduce Plasmid Gene Transfer?919 Words   |  4 Pagesanimal death. Disease is a main challenging problem for agriculturist or producer. To control a spread of disease, antibiotic synthesized from a living organism is chosen as a solution because of capability in preventing infection (Edward Boden and Anthon Andrews, 2015). On the other hand, there are diverse bacterial strains that have an antibiotic resistance system. Using antibiotic may help bacteria to develop this ability by selecting unwanted survivor by accident which cause bacteria become moreRead MoreBacterial Quorum Sensing ( Qs )1647 Words   |  7 Pagesby means of small, diffusible chemical signals. The inter and intraspecies bacterial pheromone communication creates behavior synchronization within a species. The timing of a host infestation, genetic modification for niche adaptation based on a new energy source, or the production of a secondary defense metabolite are all examples of cooperative behavior that depend on intercellular bacterial communication (Everts, 2006). The bacterial cell-to-cell communication process is referred to as quorumRead MoreDifferential Staining Lab Report1467 Words   |  6 PagesDifferential Staining and Testing for Antibiotic Production Currently, antibiotic resistance is a major concern when it comes to public health and food security. The purpose of this research is to isolate bacteria from the soil capable of antibiotic production. A local soil sample was collected and diluted through a series of serial dilutions to limit bacterial growth between 30-300 colonies, so single colonies were isolated. Single colonies were isolated onto a master plates based on variationsRead MoreThe Immune System Essay1268 Words   |  6 Pagesmutated forms of normal molecules as in some cancers. Diseases and how they can be control. When people refer to pathogens, they are talking about bacteria that cause disease. The toxins actually excreted by the pathogens are the main cause of diseases although the toxins are only by-products of the pathogens metabolism. In most cases, the toxins excreted by the pathogens find there way into the circulatory system. Thus, sometimes, the infection is caused somewhere else from where the toxins

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Gender Inequality And Oppression By Jane Eyre - 894 Words

Jane Eyre: Gender Inequality and Oppression The novel, Jane Eyre creates an atmosphere of suspense by utilizing elements such as supernatural encounters, mysteries, secrets, violence towards women and etc. The setting in Jane Eyre can be seen to place the novel in the gothic tradition, which serves primarily to support the theme of gender inequality and oppression through the rise of a poor girl against overwhelming odds. The novel opens at Gateshead, at the home of the wealthy Reed family where a girl by the name of Jane Eyre sits in the room reading a novel because aunt Reed has forbidden her from playing with her cousins. Cousin John harasses Jane for being a poor orphan and pushes her to the end of her patience causing her to erupt. Jane is held responsible and punished. â€Å"Take her away to the red room, and lock her in there†¦I was not quite sure whether they had locked the doors†¦ Alas! Yes, no jail was ever more secured.† (Bronte 15-21). Aunt Reed sends Jane to the terrifying red room where Jane faints from the fear of seeing a ghost. Shortly after being freed, Jane now aware that she will be leaving to the Lowood School, tells her aunt, â€Å"Speak I must: I had been trodden on severely†¦I will never call you aunt again as long as I live†¦I will never come to see you†¦ and if anyone asks how I liked you, of you makes me sick, and that you treated me with mis erable cruelty† (Bronte 62-3). In other words, Jane narrates the story of her life and threatens to tell everyone of theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Women Oppressed in Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre1666 Words   |  7 PagesJane Eyre: Women Oppressed      Ã‚   Gender is not a biological fact but a social construct.   However, so many assumptions have been made in the attempt to define the terms gender and sex that society often defines gender as being solely male and female.   The female sex has traditionally been oppressed due to inferences on physical and mental constraints that male-dominated society has imposed.   As with culture, gender socialization begins with birth and the family structure, though many believeRead MoreJane Eyre s Life Was Full Of Oppression, Neglect And Sorrow1498 Words   |  6 PagesJane Eyre’s life was full of oppression, neglect and sorrow. The novel was formed around a few main ideas. One of those would be the search of love and acceptance. Jane wanted to find a family so desperately and she wanted to belong to people. More than this though, Jane wanted to be treated equally. She was denied equality because of her social status, her income,her lack of â€Å"beauty† and most of all because of her gender. The book Jane Eyre shows the struggle that women face while attempting toRead MoreFeminism : The Advocacy Of Women s Rights On The Grounds Of Political, Social, And Economic Equality1694 Words   |  7 PagesMicaela Castro English 2 2/29/16 Jane Eyre and Feminism Feminism is defined as the â€Å"advocacy of women s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men† (Oxford Dictionary). In the past century, the standards of what is considered feminism have changed. At the time Jane Eyre was published, feminism per se did not exist yet. In the Victorian Era any actions done by women that went against the norms for women for that timeRead More Comparing Jane Eyre and Yellow Wallpaper1650 Words   |  7 PagesSimilarities Between Jane Eyre and Yellow Wallpaper   Ã‚   There are notable similarities between Charlotte Perkins Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper and Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre. These similarities include the treatment of space, the use of a gothic tone with elements of realism, a sense of male superiority, and the mental instability of women. There is a similar treatment of space in the two works, with the larger, upstairs rooms at the summer lodging and at Thornfield Hall being associatedRead MoreMessages to the Reader in Jane Eyre, a Novel by Charlotte Brontà «728 Words   |  3 PagesJane Eyre, a novel by Charlotte Brontà «, contains several notable themes and messages sent to its readers. Jane Eyre is a coming of age novel that is a story of a girls quest for equality and happiness. A common theme that recurs throughout the novel is the importance of independence.Charlotte Brontà « utilizes several techniques to convey this message, incorporating her personal experiences, as well as including symbolism and motifs. Charlotte Bronte subjects Jane to several conflicts that occur becauseRead MoreJane Eyre, The Bluest Eye, And Feminism1422 Words   |  6 PagesPavit Singh Mr. Trott English 2 Honors Period 5 15 May 2015 Jane Eyre, The Bluest Eye, and Feminism Feminism. It’s a big concept in society today, but has it always been that way? Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte is a famous work on the basis of her own experiences. In this novel, the author shapes a tough and independent woman who pursues true love and equality. In the Victorian period, the image of Jane Eyre cast a sharp contrast to the man-dominated society. She stands for a new lady who hasRead MoreFreedom For A Woman Of Empire883 Words   |  4 Pagesavenue—marriage. Each character lived very different lives, and their path, and reasoning for marriage varied. One variable in their decision to marry remained constant; In order to attain freedom, one must have the financial means for independence. Olivia, Jane, and, Lyndall, enter into the patriarchal institution of marriage because they essentially have no other option. However, all three heroines enter and/or exit the institution of marriage on their own terms, which situates them as the dominant participantRead MoreRelationship Between Men and Women: Jane Eyre and The Handmaids Tale1775 Words   |  8 Pages Charlotte Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s Jane Eyre entails a social criticism of the oppressive social ideas and practices of nineteenth-century Victorian society. The presentation of male and female relationships emphases men’s domination and perceived superiority over women. Jane Eyre is a reflection of Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s own observation on gender roles of the Victorian era, from the vantage point of her position as governess much like Jane’s. Margaret Atwood’s novel was written during a period of conservative revival in theRead MoreJane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte2164 Words   |  9 Pageswere difficult for Victorian women, largely because of their gender, but also because they did not have any independent source of wealth. Published in 1847, Jane Eyre written by Charlotte Brontà « depicts the life of women during that time that were economically devalued and socially marginalized. Women were not seen as equals to men and being independent meant being free from the influen ces of others. The novel tells the story of Jane Eyre, a young Victorian woman on a quest to fulfill a sense of equalityRead MoreSummary Of The Tale 1386 Words   |  6 PagesRochester, the protagonist in Jane Eyre, a typical Byronic hero with a melancholy characteristic who has a strong inclination of individual rebellion against society’s conventions. Following the portrayal of Byronic males, Rochester â€Å"injects ludic energy, performativity, and teasing seduction into the trajectory† of this female Bildungsroman of Jane Eyre. When Bronte first publishes her subversive work that challenges contemporary â€Å"social conventions and social order†, Jane used her pseudonym â€Å"Currer

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Various Shades of George Bernard Shaw Free Essays

Topic 1: What is Andragogy and how is it relevant to training and development? Andragogy is the term used to describe ‘the art and science of teaching adults’ (Delahaye, 2011). It focuses on the post-school vocational education, where the adults learning needs are the main importance and also should allow them to take responsibility for their own learning (Delahaye, 2011). In this sense, the differences between andragogy and pedagogy are related to not only the way content is taught, but also the progression of learning. We will write a custom essay sample on The Various Shades of George Bernard Shaw or any similar topic only for you Order Now Andragogy is relevant to training and development as concerns with the practical issues of trainers are coming into existence in relation to an effective way of using resources and the most suitable training methods (Jones, 1980). Therefore, as advances in knowledge are increasing, training and development programs need to be constantly altered and maintained to ensure that employees (adults) are processing this information. Andragogy is conceptualised in literature through conducting research to address what exactly is andragogy and what are the main issues in accordance to training and development. In relation to police training and development, police officers valued four distinct areas – engagement, practicality, affiliation, and efficiency (Olivia, 2009). Firstly, police officers valued classrooms that were ‘interesting and inspiring’ (Olivia, 2009), as they preferred trainers who were enthusiastic and engaged their students. Police officers also preferred the content being delivered that can be applied to their own real-life experiences on the job. Officers really emphasised the importance of the classroom environment in relation to social interaction and classroom layout. Police officers that were involved in the training and development session wanted a chance to interact with others, including the trainer. This allowed for them to learn from eachothers’ experiences (Olivia, 2009). It was also reported that the classroom should be laid out in a manner that provides the trainer the opportunity to deliver the content in an ‘efficient and effective manner’ (Olivia, 2009). They preferred classes that were well managed in relation to the time period. Therefore, it is demonstrated in research and results that andragogy is all about the motivation and preferences of the student. It is also mentioned that andragogy is ‘a learning theory, not a teaching theory’ (Mc Auliffe, 2009). Andragogy is explained through the ‘andragogical model’ composed by Knowles (Mc Auliffe, 2009). This model addresses the issues on the learning process of adults. There are four issues that make up this model. Firstly, it is important to explain to the student why they need to learn a particular topic. Secondly, the trainer has to show the learner how to direct themselves through the content, so that they can take responsibility and be motivated to learn. The content also has to enable the student to be able to relate their own experience to the components being delivered. An adult learner needs to have a ‘life-centered, task-centered or problem-centered’ (Mc Auliffe, 2009). Adults prefer to learn when they are ready and motivated to do so. Through conducting research and going back to the words of academics, it is explained in literature what andragogy is (in a practical sense) and its utter most importance in training and development programs. There are many differences between andragogy and the way children learn. They differ in relation to certain characteristics about learning. For example, the need to know, the learner’s self-concept, the role of experience, the readiness to learn, the orientation to learning and motivation (Delahaye, 2011). It is shown that children are being spoon fed content in a controlled environment, where they are more influenced by external factors. In andragogy, it is all about the needs, the experiences and self-motivational factors of the adult. For contrast, the pedagogical model developed by Knowles (Mc Auliffe, 2009) involved the communication of knowledge and skills, where ‘the teacher decides in advance what knowledge or skill needs to be transmitted’ (Mc Auliffe, 2009). It is then that it is up to the teacher when and how information is going to be taught. Pedagogy is a teaching theory, not a learning one (Mc Auliffe, 2009). Andragogy is therefore the transition from school education to post-school education. Andragogical principles is a process of providing techniques and relevant resources to help adults obtain the knowledge and skills and also allow the trainer to prepare to involve them in the learning process. Therefore for adults to develop on their skills and knowledge, it is important that they want to learn and are motivated to do so. Without this, there would be no progression. In connection with the design of the tutorial training session, I believe that andragogy is going to be very useful. In a classroom, at one point in class, a majority of the group get ‘bored’ and drift off in their own world. So therefore, it is important to ensure to come up with an activity that everyone can have fun with and would want to participate in. With the importance of ensuring that students know why the need to learn, how they are going to go about learning and the amount of relativeness to their past experiences, the training session needs to be something that everyone can relate to. Everyone needs to be involved in the process of learning the desired knowledge and skills. Andragogy is all about the culture, systems and structures that make up the adult learning environment (Nicholas, 2008), which is key for a successful training session. In conclusion, Andragogy is all about the needs and experiences of the learning process of the adult. It transcends from pedagogy, in a sense that the learning process has moved focus from a spoon fed controlled environment, to a different environment where the progression of learning is the student’s responsibility. This is relevant and very important to training and development, because, in reality, adults cannot be spoon fed the knowledge and skills needed in the working environment. They need to be more motivated and be informed of the reasons and procedures of training and development programs in order to progress and accept that they need to learn. How to cite The Various Shades of George Bernard Shaw, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Mccarthy And Faulkner Essays - Modernist Literature,

Mccarthy And Faulkner I will never claim to be an expert as an undergrad at anything, but in my personal opinion, McCarthy is not the son of Faulkner in the Southern Literary Renaissance. McCarthy and Faulkner share common view in the complexities of nature and its subsequent weave with the human condition. The psychological complexity of Faulkner also stems from his desire to explore the true heart of people and not their surfaces (note his Nobel Prize Speech). While McCarthy exposes personalities and creates unbelievable characterizations (the Judge) I don't personally feel that sometimes a true soul is left out. I do not believe that this takes away from his writing, but he would probably focus on distancing himself as far from the Faulkner stigma southern writers are labeled with in order to produce a distinct new form of literature (which in some realms he has). The violence stems from human nature and has been a part of literature for centuries. Most notably, the Victorians may have influenced McCarthy with depressing yet duty bound works as Hardy's Jude the Obscure and Browning's poetry of destruction and desolation. Then again, this is just my unqualified position dashed out at a first response. Thank you for your time and would like to read others opinions. From: Christian the Heretic What in God's name are you talking about? You're sounding as logical as Fat Freddie Freak after a long speed binge. How can you possibly say that Faulkner is not an influence on McCarthy's fiction? It doesn't make sense. I will agree with you that there are certainly other influences and these are as pervasive (perhaps) as Faulkner, but Faulkner is all through McCarthy's work. This is a hot button for me as well since I'm currently working on Light in August in comparison to Outer Dark and Child of God. First the writing style IS similar, although this is arguable from any perspective. While Faulkner uses huge and bulky sentences, McCarthy tends to use a similar rhythm broken by periodic periods. I realize that my explanation of this makes no sense. A more definable and arguable position is with the themes that lie in Faulkner's work. Particularly when we view LIA, we see characters living on the borderlands of society. Joe Christmas, Lena Grove, Byron Bunch, Gail Hightower, Johanna Burden--all of them are characters who (like Rinthy and Lester Ballard and all the rest of them jake legged melon *censored*ing necrophiliac sons of bitches) exist on the borderlands. And there is certainly a mirroring of Faulkner's treatment of Joe Christmas and McCarthy's treatment of Lester Ballard, not to mention the Rinthy Holme / Lena Grove parallels. Both Faulkner and Mc Carthy like to play with Christian imagery (as characters with more than one father ala Christ and all the other Biblical imagery in LIA among others). This is all to say that Faulkner is certainly an influence on McCarthy. True that scholars are perhaps beating that influence to death at the expense of looking at other influences but that doesn't mean that it's not there--any such argument smacks of a knee jerk reaction. From: Anonymous As you can see, there's a good case to be made for McCarthy as an inheritor of Faulkner and as a new breed, more closely akin to O'Connor or (it pains me slightly to agree with Mr. Wallach) even Hemingway. My own opinion is that critics tend to lump McCarthy into the Faulknerian school primarily because he's prone to using long, viny sentences. Secondarily, the fact that both authors usually address characters and situations which are outcast, marginalized, etc., makes for easy categorization. While these similarities are substantial, there is a difference in method (rather than style) which, I think, distinguishes the McC's approach from Faulkner's. At the core of this difference is the fact that Faulkner's prose takes place, and is generally constructed around, the internal environments of his characters. To some degree his writing can be described as comparative psychological portraiture (forgive me for interjecting my own made-up jargon here). McCarthy, to make a slightly tired p oint, stays external in regard to his characters, treating them as artifacts or products of the world. They play roles in the grand scheme

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on Symbolism And Plot

â€Å"Symbolism and Plot† Symbolism and plot are different from each other by definition; however, have a relationship towards each other when writing a story. If you understand the symbolism in a story, then you will absolutely understand the plot or the plan of events in a story. Symbolism is utilized as an enhancement tool to stress the plot of each story. Symbolism is used greatly in the short stories â€Å"Chrysanthemums† by John Steinbeck, and â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson; therefore, symbolism has a tendency to influence the plot in both short stories. The short stories both share the use of symbols, but the symbols are used to express different thoughts in ones mind while reading them. Many examples of symbolism are given to influence the plot in John Steinbeck’s short story, â€Å"The Chrysanthemums.† He uses the flowers to symbolize the main character’s thoughts and ideas. For example, Elisa Allen is a lonely woman who enjoys growing and nourishing her chrysanthemums. Since her husband is always working the cattle in their farm, she never has enough attention or any kind of affection. The result of this dispassionate marriage leads Steinbeck to describe his main character as, â€Å"Her face lean and strong and her eyes were as clear as water. Her figure looked blocked and heavy in her gardening costume, a man’s black hat pulled low down over her eyes, clod-hopper shoes, a figured print dress almost completely by a big corduroy apron with four big pockets to hold the snips, the trowel and scratcher, the seeds and the knife she worked with†(Parker, Shroyer 88). This neglect from her husband causes her to turn her chrysanthemum s, of which she is very proud. Her husband’s remark, â€Å"I wish you’d work out in the orchard and raise some apples that big† (89), shows how little interest he has for her chrysanthemums. Elisa does not feel appreciated by her husband and so she takes care of her chrysanthemums, whi... Free Essays on Symbolism And Plot Free Essays on Symbolism And Plot â€Å"Symbolism and Plot† Symbolism and plot are different from each other by definition; however, have a relationship towards each other when writing a story. If you understand the symbolism in a story, then you will absolutely understand the plot or the plan of events in a story. Symbolism is utilized as an enhancement tool to stress the plot of each story. Symbolism is used greatly in the short stories â€Å"Chrysanthemums† by John Steinbeck, and â€Å"The Lottery† by Shirley Jackson; therefore, symbolism has a tendency to influence the plot in both short stories. The short stories both share the use of symbols, but the symbols are used to express different thoughts in ones mind while reading them. Many examples of symbolism are given to influence the plot in John Steinbeck’s short story, â€Å"The Chrysanthemums.† He uses the flowers to symbolize the main character’s thoughts and ideas. For example, Elisa Allen is a lonely woman who enjoys growing and nourishing her chrysanthemums. Since her husband is always working the cattle in their farm, she never has enough attention or any kind of affection. The result of this dispassionate marriage leads Steinbeck to describe his main character as, â€Å"Her face lean and strong and her eyes were as clear as water. Her figure looked blocked and heavy in her gardening costume, a man’s black hat pulled low down over her eyes, clod-hopper shoes, a figured print dress almost completely by a big corduroy apron with four big pockets to hold the snips, the trowel and scratcher, the seeds and the knife she worked with†(Parker, Shroyer 88). This neglect from her husband causes her to turn her chrysanthemum s, of which she is very proud. Her husband’s remark, â€Å"I wish you’d work out in the orchard and raise some apples that big† (89), shows how little interest he has for her chrysanthemums. Elisa does not feel appreciated by her husband and so she takes care of her chrysanthemums, whi...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Nervous Tissue Glial Cells Structure and Function

Nervous Tissue Glial Cells Structure and Function Neuroglia, also called glial cells, are cells of the nervous system. They compose a voluminous support system that is essential to the proper operation of nervous tissue and the nervous system. Unlike neurons, glial cells do not have axons, dendrites, or conduct nerve impulses. Neuroglia are typically smaller than neurons and are about three times more numerous in the nervous system. Glia perform a plethora of functions in the nervous system. These functions include providing support for the brain, assisting in nervous system repair and maintenance, assisting in the development of the nervous system, insulating neurons, and providing metabolic functions for neurons. Types of Glial Cells and Their Function There are several types of glial cells present in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system of humans. Six main types of neuroglia include: AstrocytesAstrocytes are found in the brain and spinal cord and are 50 times more prevalent than neurons. Not only are astrocytes the most abundant neuroglia, but they are also the most abundant cell type in the brain. Astrocytes are noted for their star-shape. They reside in endothelial cells of the CNS that form the blood-brain barrier. This barrier prevents some substances from entering the brain and permits others entry. The two main categories of astrocytes are protoplasmic astrocytes and fibrous astrocytes. Protoplasmic astrocytes are found in the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, while fibrous astrocytes are found in white matter of the brain. The primary function of astrocytes is to provide structural and metabolic support for neurons. Additionally, astrocytes aid in signaling between neurons and brain blood vessels. This allows blood flow to increase or decrease depending on neuron activity. Other functions of astrocytes include glycogen storage, nutrient provision, ion co ncentration regulation, and neuron repair. Ependymal CellsEpendymal cells are specialized cells that line the cerebral ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. They are found within the choroid plexus of the meninges. These ciliated cells surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus and form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Functions of ependymal cells include CSF production, nutrient provision for neurons, filtration of harmful substances, and neurotransmitter distribution.MicrogliaMicroglia are extremely small cells of the central nervous system that remove cellular waste and protect against microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, etc.). Microglia are thought to be macrophages, a type of white blood cell that protects against foreign matter. They also help to reduce inflammation through the release of anti-inflammatory chemical signals. Microglia also function to protect the brain when neurons become injured or diseased by disabling the malfunctioning neurons.Satellite CellsThese glial cells cover and protect neur ons of the peripheral nervous system. They provide structure and metabolic support for sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nerves. Sensory satellite glial cells are involved in the development of chronic pain. OligodendrocytesOligodendrocytes are central nervous system structures that wrap some neuronal axons to form an insulating coat known as the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath, composed of lipids and proteins, functions as an electrical insulator of axons and promotes more efficient conduction of nerve impulses. Oligodendrocytes are found in the brains white matter, while satellite oligodendrocytes are found in gray matter. Satellite oligodendrocytes do not form myelin.Schwann CellsSchwann cells are neuroglia that wrap around some neuronal axons to form the myelin sheath in peripheral nervous system structures. Schwann cells help to improve nerve signal conduction, assist in nerve regeneration, and aid in antigen recognition by T cells. Schwann cells play a vital role in nerve repair. These cells migrate to the site of injury and release growth factors to promote nerve regeneration. Schwann cells then myelinate the newly generated nerve axons. Schwann cells are being heavily researched for their potential use in spinal cord injury repair. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells indirectly assist in the conduction of impulses as myelinated nerves can conduct impulses quicker than unmyelinated ones. Interestingly enough, the white matter in the brain gets its color from the large number of myelinated nerve cells that it contains. Other Animal Tissue Types Neuroglia are just one type of tissue found in animal organisms. Other tissue types include: Nervous Tissue: This is the primary tissue of the central nervous system. It is composed of neurons and is responsible for controlling body functions. Epithelial Tissue: This tissue covers the outside of the body and lines organs. It provides a protective barrier against germs. Connective Tissue: As the name suggests, connective tissue supports and connects tissues to other underlying tissues. Muscle Tissue: The primary tissue responsible for movement, muscle tissue is capable of contraction. Sources: Purves, Dale. â€Å"Neuroglial Cells.† Neuroscience. 2nd Edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10869/.Sofroniew, Michael V., and Harry V. Vinters. â€Å"Astrocytes: Biology and Pathology.† SpringerLink, Springer-Verlag, 10 Dec. 2009, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00401-009-0619-8.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Knowledge Management Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Knowledge Management - Term Paper Example This discussion stresses that it is always possible to build a network within the organization where data from various departments will be collaborated into a single centralized system before forwarding it to Google’s platform. As far as the use of the database is concerned to, the platform put forth by Google cloud services makes it possible for all individual systems within the organization to have a common access so that organizational roles and functions on the database can be undertaken on a collaborated purpose.As the report highlights  comes with the cloud services offered on Google’s website is that it makes organizational innovation more revealing. That is, is stimulates the act and practice of organizational innovation among the personnel within the organization. This is done in a number of ways. Because of the idea of bringing about collaboration, it becomes almost mandatory that every sector of the organization should be working on its own miniature databa se that would be forwarded into a centralized system before sending it to the Google database. This decentralized system eradicates the temptation that certain departments will be waiting on the centralized system to get all the work done. Rather, the innovative skill of every sector is quickened and brought alive as they all take up a role to deliver within the organization.  Expert systems and neural networks are both components of a technology based management system that is rooted in the principles of knowledge management.... cloud services offered such as replication, patch management and backups require that people within the system get themselves at breast with the technological time to be able to live up such challenges. By so doing, creativity and innovation is highlighted among the people because they will be forced to live up to modernity and time. 2. Generally, expert systems and neural networks are both components of a technology based management system that is rooted in the principles of knowledge management. This is because in both cases, there is that conscious effort by stakeholders to ensuring that the capabilities, insights and experiences available to the human resource base are identified, nurtured, utilized and developed through the use of basic technology (Guo & Sanchez, 2005). As far as expert systems is concerned, it could be said to be tilted more towards artificial intelligence that allows for the use of computer system to undertake the basic processes of decision-making that would have otherwise existed for the human resource to undertake. The process is referred to as expert systems because in its delivery of work, it functions and undertakes processes as a human expert would do. The capabilities available in expert systems thus have to do with the fact that it does not use logical procedures of developers but use consequential logical reasoning to solve complex problems. In the long run, the inadequacies and weaknesses of the creator of the systems are overshadowed by the complex reasoning capabilities of the system and this is a huge advantage to users of expert systems. Neural network is also attributed to artificial intelligence in the manner in which it uses the artificial basis of the biological concept of neurology to solve basic technological problems of